Becoming accustomed to any behaviour or condition, including psychoactive substance use. In the context of drugs, the term has overtones of dependence. In 1957, a WHO Expert Committee distinguished drug habituation from drug addiction on the basis of the absence of physical dependence, desire rather than compulsion to take the drug, and little or no tendency to increase the dose (see tolerance).1 In 1964 another WHO Expert Committee replaced both terms with drug dependence.2

何らかの行動もしくは状態に慣れること。精神作用物質の使用を含む。薬物に対して用いられる場合、この用語は依存の意味を含む。1957年、WHOの専門家委員会は、精神依存がないこと、薬物摂取への欲求が強迫性に至っていないこと、服用量の増加傾向が見られないことを基準として、薬物習慣(drug habituation)を薬物嗜癖(drug addiction)を区別した1。1964年には、別のWHO専門家委員会が、この二つの用語を薬物依存(drug dependence)で置き換えた2

1 Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs. Seventh report of The Expert Committee. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1957 (WHO Technical Report Series, No.116).

2 WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs. Thirteenth report of the WHO Expert Committee. Geneva, World Health Organization. 1964 (WHO Technical Report Series, No.273). WHO (1994)1), p.38
Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms (WHO)




上の項目の参考文献であるWHO専門家委員会(Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs)による報告書では、薬物習慣の定義を行うことで、嗜癖と習慣を明確に区別しようとしている。

8. Definition of Habit-Forming Drugs

8. 習慣形成薬物の定義

Reviewing at this time the definitions of addiction-producing and habit-formingdrugs as drafted in its second report2 and clarified in its third report,3 the Committee was of the opinion that the time was ripe for emphasizing again the distinction between addiction and habituation (see Annex, page 12). To this end the following definitions were approved:4

嗜癖形成薬物と習慣形成薬物の定義についての第二報告書でのドラフト2、および第三報告書でより明瞭化されたもの3について今回再検討を行った結果、当委員会は嗜癖と習慣(付録参照, p.12)の区別について再度強調するべき時期であるという意見に至った。

Drug addiction Drug habituation
Drug addiction is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). Its characteristics include:Drug habituation (habit) is a condition resulting from the repeated consumption of a drug. Its characteristics include:
(1)an overpowering desire or need (compulsion) to continue taking the drug and to obtain it by any means;a desire (but not a compulsion) to continue taking the drug for the sense of improved well-being which it engenders;
(2)a tendency to increase the dose;little or no tendency to increase the dose;
(3)a psychic (psychological) and generally a physical dependence on the effects of the drug;some degree of psychic dependence on the effect of the drug, but absence of physical dependence and hence of an abstinence syndrome;
(4)detrimental effect on the individual and on society.detrimental effects, if any, primarily on the individual.
薬物嗜癖 薬物習慣

2 Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1950, 21, 6-7 (sections 6.1-6.3)
3 Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1952, 57, 9 (section 6.1)
4 The definition for drug addiction is substantially the same as the one given in the second report of the Committee; that for drug habituation is new.

4 薬物嗜癖の定義については当委員会の第二報告書内のものと実質的に同じであり、薬物習慣についてのみ新しく定義された。 WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs (1957)2), pp.9-10
Technical Report Series No.116 [pdf] (WHO)


1964年WHOの専門家委員会(Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs)は嗜癖や習慣のかわりに依存(dependence)を使うことを勧告した。

4. Terminology in Regard to Drug Abuse
“Drug dependence” to replace the terms “drug addiction” and “drug habituation”

The WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs in 1952 1 attempted to formulate a definition of addiction applicable to drugs under international control, which it later (1957)2 revised. The Expert Committee sought also to differentiate addiction from habituation and wrote a definition of the latter which, however, failed in practice to make a clear distinction. The definition of addiction gained some acceptance, but confusion in the use of the terms addiction and habituation and misuse of the former continued. Further, the list of drugs abused increased in number and diversity. These difficulties have become increasingly apparent and various attempts have been made to find a term that could be applied to drug abuse generally. The component in common appears to be dependence, whether psychic or physical or both. Hence, use of the term “drug dependence”, with a modifying phrase linking it to a particular drug type in order to differentiate one class of drugs from another, has been given most careful consideration.

WHOの専門家委員会(Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs)は1952年に国際的に規制を受けている薬物を対象とした嗜癖の定義を明確にしようとした。1957年にはその定義の改版を行った。専門家委員会はまた、嗜癖(addiction)と習慣(habituation)の区別を目指し、後者の定義も作成したが、両者の違いは必ずしも明確にならなかった。嗜癖の定義はある程度受け入れられたが、嗜癖と習慣という用語の使い分けの混乱や、以前からの誤用は終息しなかった。さらに、乱用される薬物のリストは長くなり、多様性も増加した。困難が増していることが明らかになったため、薬物乱用全般に適用できるような用語を見出そうとする様々な努力が行われた。精神的に、身体的に、またその両者に共通して「依存(dependence)」という用語が使われていることは明らかであった。とはいえ、「薬物依存」という言葉を使うに当たっては、ある薬物と他とを区別するために、該当する薬物の種類を付すことが望ましいことを十分に考慮すべきである。

“Drug dependence” is defined as a state arising from repeated administration of a drug on a periodic or continuous basis. Its characteristics will vary with the agent involved and this must be made clear by designating the particular type of drug dependence in each specific case–for example, drug dependence of morphine type, of cocaine type, of cannabis type, of barbiturate type, of amphetamine type, etc. (See Annex 1 for descriptions of specific types of drug dependence.)

「薬物依存」は周期的あるいは連続的に薬物を繰り返し摂取することによって起こる状態と定義される。その特徴は関わる薬物によって様々に異なっているため、個々の事例についてどのタイプの薬物の依存なのか明示されなければならない。それは例えばモルヒネタイプの薬物依存、コカインタイプ、バルビツールタイプ、アンフェタミンタイプなどである(薬物依存のタイプ分けについてはAnnex 1を参照のこと)。

The Expert Committee recommends substitution of the term “drug dependence” for the terms “drug addiction” and “ drug habituation”.


It must be emphasized that drug dependence is a general term selected for its applicability to all types of drug abuse and carries no connotation of the degree of risk to public health or need for a particular type of drug control. The agents controlled internationally continue to be those that are morphine-like, cocaine-like, and cannabis-like, however produced, the use of which results in drug dependence of morphine type, drug dependence of cocaine type, and drug dependence of cannabis type. Other types of drug dependence (barbiturate, amphetamine, etc.) continue to present problems, but their description under the general term “drug dependence” does not in any way affect the measures taken to solve them. The general term will help to indicate a relationship by drawing attention to a common feature associated with drug abuse and at the same time permit more exact description and differentiation of specific characteristics according to the nature of the agent involved.


1) Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1952, 57, 9 (section 6.1).
2) Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1957, 116, 9 (section 8).

注)Annex 1には、モルヒネ、バルビツール、コカイン、アンフェタミン、大麻が挙げられている。

WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs (1964)3), pp.9-10
Technical Report Series No.273 [pdf] (WHO)

WHO (1994), Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms. Geneva: World Health Organization →Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms (WHO)
WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs (1957), Seventh Report, Geneva: Wolrd Health Organization →Technical Report Series No.116 [pdf] (WHO)
WHO Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs (1964), Thirteenth Report. Geneva: Wolrd Health Organization → Technical Report Series No.273 [pdf] (WHO)
lexicon/habituation.txt · 最終更新: 2014/08/10 15:30 by ragi